Posts tagged EXHIBITION
Posts tagged EXHIBITION
As the exhibition is being organized during the next several months, images and descriptions of objects to be displayed will be posted at this Tumblr site. They will be tagged EXHIBITION.
Exercitia spiritualia [Spiritual Exercises]
Ignatius of Loyola, S.J. (1491-1556)
Date of publication: 1548 (first edition)
St. Ignatius Loyola composed these meditations between 1522-24. In 1546-47, five years after Pope Paul III approved the Jesuits, André des Freux, S.J. translated Ignatius’s original Spanish manuscript into Latin. Paul III approved its publication in 1548. These interior “exercises” aimed at guiding the retreatant into deeply personal experiences. The final “Contemplation to Attain Divine Love” imagines all created things as sun rays sustaining one’s life. Those who made the Exercises were interiorly fortified to travel far abroad with confidence, often alone, into unknown and sometimes hostile lands. They sought divine traces in whatever they encountered.
This rare first edition is conserved in Loyola Chicago’s Edward A. Cudahy Collection of Jesuitica. This remarkable collection was donated over a number of years by Loyola benefactor Edward A. Cudahy, Jr. (1884-1966), widely known for having been kidnapped as a boy in December 1900. Items are continually being added to the Archives and Special Collections’ online Jesuitica digital collection.
The stamp on the inside front cover board of this volume reads “Ex libris Leonis S. Olshcki Bibliopolae Florentini.” It would seem that Edward Cudahy purchased this first edition from the Florentine publishing house Casa editrice Leo S. Olschki (also on Facebook) founded in 1886.
Tabernacle door fragment [Mocking of Christ]
Paraguayan Reductions (17th century)
6 x 12 x 1.5 inches
Wood and paint
Jesuits arrived in South America beginning around 1570, thirty years after the Society’s founding. The first Guayrá mission, Loreto, was established in 1610. The Jesuit Reductions (reducciones), a variation on Spanish imperial policy, gathered native populations into centralized locations for governance, labor, and taxation. Formed by the Spiritual Exercises, Jesuits expected Christian conversions while accommodating indigenous culture. Everyday life among the Guaraní (along with the Reductions’ violent end) is portrayed in the film The Mission (1986). This tabernacle door, in the “Guaraní Baroque” hybrid style, depicts the Mocking of Christ, a popular Renaissance and Baroque motif.
Lender: Midwest Jesuit Archives, Saint Louis, Missouri
Reliquary with Portrait of St. Ignatius Loyola
(Verso: Immaculate Conception)
Roman School, ca. 1650
3 x 1.5 inches
Silver, crystal, watercolor
This reliquary bears a portrait of St. Ignatius Loyola holding a book in his left hand with the Jesuit motto, Ad majoren Dei gloriam (AMDG): “For the greater glory of God.” The Baroque style evokes that of Peter Paul Rubens, a graduate of the Jesuit college in Cologne. In 1609, Rubens produced a series of seventy-five engravings of The Life of St. Ignatius Loyola. In 1615, the Jesuits commissioned him to provide designs and paintings for their new church in Antwerp. Depicting Loyola in a chasuble rather than a simple cassock emphasizes his priestly status.
© 2012 Norton Simon Art Foundation
Crown of Thorns Reliquary
Roman School, ca. 1650
4 x 3.5 inches
Silver and crystal
This elaborate reliquary contains a tip from a thorn purportedly taken from the Crown of Thorns. A parody of kingship, this crown was a key moment in the Mocking of Christ (compare the tabernacle door image from the Paraguayan Reductions). Ancient elements of material religion, relics underscore the paradox of portable corporeality. Sacred bodies and material objects that touched them are historically individual: they once lived in a particular place and time. However, portability lets them cross boundaries of space, time, sea, land, and cultures. Sacred suffering reminds global travelers of divine companionship during difficult voyages and journeys.
Three Keys to the Jesuit church in Kaskaskia
6 x 2; 3.5 x 1.5 inches
In 1675, Fr. Marquette established the Mission of the Immaculate Conception with the Kaskaskia tribe of the Illiniwek at Starved Rock (Illinois Country, New France). In 1698, French Jesuit Fr. Pierre-Gabriel Marest was assigned to the mission. In 1700, he accompanied the tribe’s migration down the Mississippi. They settled on a peninsula originally connected to the river’s east (“Illinois”) bank. In 1703, Fr. Marest, offered a Mass of thanks. Located across the river from Saint Louis, Kaskaskia became a trade center. In 1714, just after the first stone church was built, Fr. Marest died in an epidemic.
Map of New France (French): territories that had been controlled by France sometime during the period 1534-1803.
The indication in the map’s lower-left corner reads: “This map only contains sixty forts where New-France actually numbered more than 150 forts.”
In The Catholic Calumet, historian Tracy Neal Leavelle examines interactions between Jesuits and Algonquian-speaking peoples of the upper Great Lakes and Illinois country, including the Illinois and Ottawas, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Leavelle abandons singular definitions of conversion that depend on the idealized elevation of colonial subjects from “savages” to “Christians” for more dynamic concepts that explain the changes that all participants experienced. A series of thematic chapters on topics such as myth and historical memory, understandings of human nature, the creation of colonial landscapes, translation of religious texts into Native languages, and the influence of gender and generational differences demonstrates that these encounters resulted in the emergence of complicated and unstable cross-cultural religious practices that opened new spaces for cultural creativity and mutual adaptation.
Available for subscribers to Project Muse here.
Read about Fr. Marest’s journeys here.
Marquette Flint Cross
3 x 3 inches
This flint cross, made by a member of the Illinois Confederation (Illini), was given as a gift to Père Jacques Marquette, S.J. (1637–75). In 1666, five years after Louis XIV assumed personal rule of France, Marquette was assigned to New France as a missionary. In 1673, after Illini tribesmen told him about the Mississippi trade route, he and Louis Jolliet became the first Europeans to explore the river. In late 1674, the Marquette party reached Lake Michigan by way of the Chicago Portage. In 1674-75, they became the first Europeans to winter in today’s Chicago. Marquette died at age 37 from effects of dysentery.
Baptismal Spoon from Kaskaskia
8 x 2 inches
In 1715, a dozen years after the Immaculate Conception Mission migrated to Kaskaskia, a visitor observed “about twenty French voyageurs who have settled there and married Indian women,” 400 Illiniwek men (the hundreds of native women were left unmentioned), and two Jesuit missionaries. Of 21 children whose births and baptisms were recorded before Fr. Marest’s death (1714), most were multiracial (métis): 18 Indian mothers and 20 French fathers. The Kaskaskia village is now included in the Homeland of the Metis Nation. Note the actual shell attached to the metal handle of this baptismal spoon. Freshwater mussel shell spoons date back to prehistoric times.
See also: Archaeology at the Dickson Mounds Museum
8 x 5 x 16
Silver and glass
This monstrance is attributed to Jean-Baptiste Loir (ca. 1689-1716), a Parisian silversmith and goldsmith. Contemporaneous examples of Loir’s work may be found preserved in France and Québec. Even more than a reliquary, a monstrance was an essential element of material religion in the European-indigenous encounter. Like the tabernacle, the monstrance embodied a site of human-divine union radiating transcendent power. It displayed the eucharistic host (made of bread) for adoration as Christ’s Real Presence: body, blood, soul, divinity. This monstrance may have served the first stone church of the Immaculate Conception Mission built in 1714 at Kaskaskia.
Chalice (ca. 1750-1800)
4 x 4 x 8
Silver and gold plate
This chalice has its origin in 18th-c. French-ruled “Flanders,” the multi-lingual and multi-ethnic “Flemish” region forming today’s northwest Belgium with French and Dutch borderlands. Reputedly a missionary chalice “from the colonial French region in southern Illinois,” it likely arrived in “Upper Louisiana” (Illinois Country) before 1760. In the Treaty of Paris (1763), New France east of the Mississippi (except New Orleans) was ceded to Great Britain and became the British “Indian Reserve.” Since Europeans needed permission to stay, most French migrated south to New Orleans or west across the river to (now Spanish) Saint Louis (est. 1764). Boundary crossings and migration marked this chalice from its birth.