Posts tagged Restoration
Posts tagged Restoration
On October 16-18, 2014, Loyola University Chicago will host a conference to mark the bicentennial of the restoration of the Society of Jesus following its suppression from 1773-1814. It will also mark a century of women’s education at Loyola-Mundelein (1914-2014).
The conference aims at locating works–of both restored Jesuits and their colleagues from women’s religious orders–within the specific experiential context of building an American nation. The stories of these men and women provide studies in what Thomas Tweed has termed Crossing and Dwelling (2006): refugees from European exclusions; transatlantic immigrants; multilingual and transnational identities; settlers in ethnic urban cores; boundary-dwellers in frontier peripheries.
As the bicentennial year approaches, this page seeks to facilitate new discussion and investigation of Jesuit history through shared sources, questions, and ideas.
John Padberg, S.J. visited Loyola University Chicago on October 18, 2012 and presented a colloquium on the Jesuit Suppression and Restoration. (See here for video). He concluded with observations on the mentalities shaping 19th-century Jesuit enterprises, both in Europe and America.
The invitation to the colloquium posed questions for investigating the “Restored Jesuits and the American Experience”:
In order to understand what Jesuits brought with them to their encounter with 19th-century America, some grasp of the Restoration and the Restored Society is necessary.
Although the anonymous “junior” (i.e., a Jesuit scholastic during the first two years of formation after the novitiate) is writing only six years after the end of the Civil War, his remarks about “our former slaves, the same families that came with our first Fathers and Novices from Maryland fifty years ago,” carry little of the emotion or self-consciousness that today’s reader might expect after such a trauma.
For a study of Jesuit slaveholding in Maryland both before and after the Suppression-Restoration, see Thomas Murphy, Jesuit Slaveholding in Maryland, 1717-1838 (2001).
C. Walker Gollar, “Jesuit Education and Slavery in Kentucky, 1832-1868,” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 108/3 (Summer 2010): 213-249.
On July 21, 1880, one year before the implementation of the Ferry Laws, The True Witness and Catholic Chronicle (Montreal) published an account of the Jesuits’ expulsion from their residence and church of St-Ignace on the rue de Sevres in Paris.
The 1880 article is available online: "Expulsion of the Jesuits. Brutality of the Parisians"
In 1880 the French Jesuits went into exile on the island of Jersey.
Engraving of Lorenzo Ricci, S.J., taken from Alfred Hamy’s ‘Galerie illustrée de la Compagnie de Jésus’, vol. 7 (1893). The Latin inscription (Omnes, qui volunt pie vivere in Christo Iesu persecutionem patientur) is taken from the New Testament: “Indeed, all who will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.” (2 Timothy 3:12)
In 1773, Fr. Lorenzo Ricci, S.J., Superior General of the Society of Jesus, was arrested on orders of Pope Clement XIV and imprisoned in Castel Sant’ Angelo where he died not long after. Clement XIV, who had been educated by the Jesuits in his youth, was a Franciscan friar.
In 2013, 240 years after the Suppression of the Society of Jesus and the imprisonment of Fr. General Ricci, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J., Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires, was elected the first Jesuit pope and first pope from the American continents.
Bergoglio chose the name “Francis.”
2013 marked the 199th year since the Jesuit Restoration.
AUGUST 23, 1849: James Van de Velde, S.J., Bishop of Chicago, presides over the exhumation of the remains of Fr. Sebastian Meurin, S.J., last remaining Jesuit from the suppressed Society in Prairie du Rocher (New France; present-day Illinois).
Fr. Meurin’s remains then crossed over to the west bank of the Mississippi River and were re-interred in their new dwelling: the Jesuit cemetery at St. Stanislaus Kostka seminary (Florissant, Missouri).
For photographs of the old seminary, see the work of Mark Abeln. For the St. Stanislaus Museum, see "St. Stanislaus Museum: preserving NoCo’s frontier history" (2009).
Account reproduced from James J. McGovern and Patrick Augustine Feehan, Souvenir of the Silver Jubilee in the Episcopacy of His Grace, the Most Rev. Patrick Augustine Feehan, Archbishop of Chicago (1891).
For another account, see the Illinois Catholic Historical Review (July, 1918-1919).
MISSION AND FRONTIERS:
PERSPECTIVES ON EARLY MODERN MISSIONARY CATHOLICISM
Symposium Venue: National University of Ireland, Galway, 4th and 5th June, 2013
When, in 1893, Frederick Turner spoke of a phenomenon that ‘broke the bonds of custom, offered new experiences, [and] called out new institutions and activities’, he was referring to the American frontier, but his description can be aptly applied to the missionary challenges the Catholic church encountered at the ‘frontiers’ of mission in the early modern era. These were places and spaces with amorphous cultural and/or politico-geographical boundaries, unsettled or changing ‘certainties’, and innovations stemming from the shifting realities of contact and diffusion which those involved in mission experienced within and without Europe.
This symposium will seek to examine afresh the contours of mission in frontier zones, exploring the character and impact of missionary activity at the boundaries of Catholic culture and geography.
Possible topics for consideration include but are not limited to:
• Defining the meaning and applicability of frontier in relation to early modern Catholicism
• Exploring the meanings of ‘mission church’ and ‘missionary Catholicism’
• Competition and co-operation in the competition for souls
• Cohesion and difference, relating to gender, native ‘church’, and inter-religion contacts
• Colonial religion and the ‘process’ of imperial empire-making
• Centre and periphery – authority and autonomy in missionary enterprises
Photo: Church of the Holy Family, Cahokia, Illinois, originally a 17th-century French Jesuit mission in “New France.” According to the parish website, the first mass was celebrated at Holy Family on December 8, 1698. At the Suppression, remaining Jesuit priests were shipped back to France on the “Minerve” on February 6, 1764. In the end, only Fr. Sebastian Meurin was allowed to remain. After the Restoration, Meurin’s remains were exhumed and re-interred across the Mississippi River at Florissant.
Resources are available at the Center for French Colonial Studies / Centre pour l’etude du pays des Illinois.